Material Particles - a model

By Bento, Luis San Miguel
Posted on 2018-10-11    Last edited on 2018-10-20

Matter is composed by aggregates of particles (molecules and atoms) that are composed by smaller particles (protons, neutrons, etc) that are composed by smaller particles (quarks), that are composed...etc. It is not possible to know the composition of the smaller particle that exist. We can only imagine such particle. However, the properties of such imagined particle must obey the laws of physics. We have imagined a model of such particle, represented by e(,) for a space-time particle (Bento, 2017). This particle has a dimension, we represent by 1 ε, that is 1/8 of Planck dimension, that is 1 ε = 2,02025.E-35 m

In our model, space time particle has two space modes, (+) and (-), defining opposite properties in such way that, when two particles in presence with opposite modes, they vanish: e(+).e(-) = 0.  To avoid this disappearance of space particles, a second substance must exist, with two opposite modes t(+) and t(-). This substance is designed by time or intern time. The association of these two substances in same particle, is designed as space-time particle e(±,±), that is, e(space mode, time mode).

In empty space, space-time particles are composed by one space particle and one quantum of intern time, 1 tie(1±,1±) or e(±,±). Theses particle can alternate modes, vibrate, as presented at Figure 1:


Figure 1: Vibration between empty space particles


At normal conditions, empty-space particles vibration is: e(+,+)  «  e(-,-). A complete vibration cycle  e(+,+)  →   e(-,-)   e(+,+)  define the time unit 1 Ω (Universal time).

Material particles are space-time particles with a large quantity of intern time quanta (> 16 ti). A material particle with, (+) space mode and + n ti of intern time quanta, is represented by e(+,+n), we represent as Zi(+n). A material particle does not vibrate, that is space and time mode doesn´t vibrate.

When a material particle is in empty space, at mode (-) the following reaction will happen:

Zi(+n) . e(-,-)           Zi(+n-2).e(-,+)                                    (1)

Two intern time quanta are transferred from material particle to empty space particle. In the meantime, empty space mode changes from (-) to (+) and the following reaction happens:

Zi(+n-2).e(-,+).e(+,+).e(+,+)              Zi(+n-2).e(0).Zi(+3).e(0)              (2)

A new particle is formed, e(+,+3) , Zi(+3), due to the annulation of space mode, in two particles,  and transfer of intern time quanta from these particles to the remaining space-time particle. Also, two null particles e(0) are formed.

Zi(+3) particle is then in presence of e(-,-) particles and the following reaction occurs:

                                    Zi(+3).e(-,-).e(-,-)   →  e(0).e(-,+).e(0)                                  (3)

Zi(3) particle decay forming a e(-,+) particle and two null particles.

After 1 W of time, at mode (+), the following reactions happen:

                                    e(+,+). e(-,+)    e(0).Zi(+3).e(0)                                         (4)

A chain reaction starts. These reactions, if external conditions are not changed, only stop when total intern time of material particle reaches the value n=1 ti. This happens at a time, design as material particle total decay time, t = Td W.

At Table 1 we represent the Zi(+n) particle decay with 8 W of decay time. For simplicity we represent e(±,±)  by  (±,±).

During decay, a beam of particles, X Beam, is formed at each material particle Pole (Table 1- blue color). It is noted that this beam has a particles periodicity of 4 e of space, or 4 W of time: 

                                    e(-,+). e(+,+).e(+,-).e(0).e(-,+)     mode (-)                    (5)

                                    … Zi(+3).e(-,-)-e(-,+).e(0).Zi(+3)      mode (+)                 (6)


In our hypothesis, the beams represent a photons beams, with Zi(+3) representing a photon.

We consider a material particle with 8 Poles, that is, the number of possible decay lines.

Each material particle is surrounded by 26 empty-space particles. This association of 27 particles we design as mega-particle (Figure 2).


Figure 2 . Representation of a mega material particle


During dislocation, material particles move through the decay Lines in two orthogonal directions (Figure 3). The resulting movement Line will make an angle of 45º with each decay Line.


Figure 3- Material particle dislocation

During material particles movement, decay reactions are interrupted. Therefore, if a material particle is at a uniform movement, decay lines are interrupted at regular time intervals.

A X Beam is then represented as section with a length λ ε , the X Beam wave length (Figure 4)


Figure 4 – Sections of X Beams due to uniform movement

Another type of particles beam formed during material particles decay is the Z Beams, null particles beams.

Null particles formed during decay will dislocate empty space particles, e(±,±) in a period of time of 1 Ω

                                       e(0). e(+,+)  →  e(-,+) . e(0)                                            (7)

                                      e(0). e(-,-)  →  e(+,-) . e(0)                                          (8)


Particles e(0) will move to space zones with lower concentrations of e(0). In our case, a material particle isolated, the displacement is away from material particle center, forming 45º with X Beam (Figure 5).


Figure 5 – Null particles beams, N Beams


The direction of each N Beam is represented by n, nw, w, sw, s, se, e and ne. (these symbols have no magnetic meaning). At Figure 5 only n direction is correct; other directions will above and under the page. 

Zi(+3) particles are formed with a regular time space interval, blocks, b Ω, in X Beams (for material particles at rest v = 0 ).

Consider the block that starts with Zi(+3) formed at a 6 Ω and 1 e. In this block, 4 e(0) particles are formed. The next block, block 2, more 4 e(0) are formed. At end of block 2, will exist 8 e(0) particles, formed at blocks 1 and 2. This will happen in following blocks. till the decay end.

The total number of e(0) formed during X Ω, after the beginning of material particle decay, is:

                                               E(0)T =  ½ . X 2/ b                                                          (9)


The total number of particles formed at a point X ε in decay line, for a material particle, is:

                                                 E(0)T  =   Po*/2.b  . X 2                                                             (10)    

with Po* being the number of active Poles in each material particle, and b the time periodicity of decay reaction. For a particle at rest and isolated, b = 4 Ω and Po* = 8, and:


E(0)T  =    2                                                             (11)      



Bento L.S.M., (2017), Space-Time and Matter, Kindle e-book; ISBN 978-989-99259-2-8

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